Bollworm : Threat For cotton growers
Cotton has played an important part in the economic development of India and has remained a key source of livelihood for many farmers. Cotton has been grown in Indiafor more than a hundred years and a significant traditional textiles industry has existed in the region for more than 50 years. In India Cotton is one of the most important fibre producing plants. Cotton crop not only provides fibre for the textile industry, but also plays a role in the feed and oil industries with its seed, rich in oil (18 – 24%) and protein (20 – 40%). An estimated 350 million people are engaged in cotton production either on-farm or in transportation, ginning, baling and storage. Hundreds of varieties of cotton grain exist in India. Some of them are indigenous and have been traced back to the 10th century. But Now days cotton is suffering from damage and major yield and quality losses. Beacuse cotton is susceptible to a wide range of insect pests. Among the most destructive are the bollworm. There are many types of bollworms which effect cotton field badly. Let’s talk about different type of bollworms.
Spodoptera litura, otherwise known as the tobacco cutworm or cotton leafworm, is a nocturnal moth in the Noctuidae family. S. litura is a serious polyphagous pest. It has a very wide host range of over 120 plant species. Spodoptera litura, the tobacco caterpillar has attained major pest status because of its high reproductive potential along with the ability to migrate to long distances as adults. At the same time only larval stages cause 80-90% economic losses due to its voracious feeding of the leaf. Feeding is initially by skeletonizing, or leaving the outline of the leave veins on the plant. As growth continues, caterpillars eat entire leaves, and even flowers and fruits. The Caterpillar burrows into the soil several centimeters and there pupates without a cocoon. While pupating, it produces large amounts of fluid. Attempts to allow pupation in captivity within an empty glass jar have resulted in drowning.
Spotted Bollworm is a common pest in southern region. he adults of E. insulana are small; fore wings with uniform silvery green colored whereas E. vittella has buff colored forewing with a green band on the middle of the fore wings. Earias vittella larvae are brownish with longitudinal white stripes on dorsal side having orange dots on prothorax without finger shaped process on the cream colored body. E. insulana has finger shaped process on atleast two thoracic segments and all abdominal segments. Pupa is covered in a boat shaped tough silken cocoon attached to plant parts or on the fallen leaves or fruiting bodies.
The American bollworm is a major insect pest of cotton which can cause losses to farmers. The young insect looks like a grub and is about the size of a match stick. It attacks and feeds on the inside of buds, flowers and bolls. The grub has two lines on its back running from its head to its tail. As it feeds, it changes from yellowish white to greenish yellow and becomes older and larger. he grub puts its head into the boll, while keeping the rear of its body outside the boll. Its droppings are tiny black beads which are mostly found on lower leaves.
The pink bollworm is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming. The adult is a small, thin, gray moth with fringed wings. The larva is a dull white, caterpillar with eight pairs of legs with conspicuous pink banding along its dorsum. Pink bollworms damage squares and bolls, the damage to bolls being the most serious. Larvae burrow into bolls, through the lint, to feed on seeds. As the larva burrows within a boll, lint is cut and stained, resulting in severe quality loss. Under dry conditions, yield and quality losses are directly related to the percentage of bolls infested and the numbers of larvae per boll. With high humidity, it only takes one or two larvae to destroy an entire boll because damaged bolls are vulnerable to infection by boll rot fungi.
Many cotton farmers are facing greay yield loss because of bollworm. Every year great loss of cotton estimated India. For more potent crop HPM working day and night . Each and every second hpm works for farmer. HPM’s Terminator 505 is the best product for all types of cotton bollworms. It is a versatile broad-spectrum insecticide. Extremely effective against all types of boll worms. It is a contact and stomach insecticide with vapour action and quick knock down effect. It also controls Aphids, Jassids, Thrips and white fly. Controls American Boll Worm, Pink Boll Worm, Spodoptra litura etc.