Complete Crop Solution For Orange Cultivation
Orange is most common among citrus fruits grown in India. It occupies nearly 40% of the total area under citrus cultivation in India. In India, in terms of area under cultivation, citrus is the third largest fruit industry after Banana and Mango. Nagpur mandarin is one of the best mandarins in the world. Production of this fruit crop in central and western part of India is increasing every year. Orange is rich in vitamin C, A, B and phosphorus. Orange is consumed fresh or in the form of juice, jam, squash and syrup. It is the main source of peel oil, citric acid and cosmetics which have international market value.
Important mandarin orange varieties cultivated in India are Ngapur Santra, Coorg Santra, Khasi Santra, Mudkhed, Shringar, Butwal, Dancy, Kara (Abohar), SZ-IN-COM, Darjeeling Mandarin, Sumithra mandarin, Seedless-182 and Kinnow mandarin .
Climate and Soil Requirements:
Oranges grow successfully in all frost free tropical and sub-tropical regions upto 1,500 m. above m.s.l. An annual rainfall of 100-120 cm. and temperature ranging from 100-350 C is suitable for cultivation of the crop. Oranges can be grown in a wide variety of soils but medium or light loamy soils with slightly heavy sub-soil, well-drained with pH of 6.0-8.0 are ideal for cultivation.
Orange is propagated by seeds and also vegetatively propagated by T-budding. Seedlings are mostly transplanted in the month of July-August after commencement of monsoon. Oranges are usually planted in pits of 50 cm. X 50 cm. X 50 cm. size in a square system with a spacing of 4.5-6 m. , accommodating 350-450 plants/ha. In north-eastern parts of India, Khasi mandarins are very closely spaced (4.5 m. X 4.5 m.), accommodating more than 500 plants/ha.
Irrigation is provided at an interval of 10-15 days during winter months whereas during summer months it is provided at an interval of 5-7 days. Drip irrigation leads to effective, efficient and economic use of irrigation water and is recommended specially in low rainfall regions of Maharashtra, MP and Rajasthan which are some of the major producing areas.
Manures and fertilizers per plant
Nitrogen has to be applied in two doses during March and October. However Farm yard manure, Phosphorous and Potash are to be applied in October. Manures are applied in the basin 70 cm away from the trunk and incorporated in the soil. Spray solution containing Sulphate of Zinc (0.5%), Manganese (0.05%), Iron (0.25%), Magnesium (0.5%), Boron (0.1%) and Molybdenum (0.003%) once in 3 months at the time of new flush production. In addition to that apply 50 g in each of Sulphate of Zinc, Manganese and Iron per tree per year.
Leaf minor can controlled by spraying Dichlorvos 76 EC at the rate of 1 ml/lit . Citrus root nematode can be controlled by applying Thiamethoxam 30% FS at 20g per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk for the management of slow decline due to the citrus root nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). Soil application of Thiamethoxam 75% SG followed by drenching with Metalaxyl + Mancozeb 64 WP cutting/ poly bag/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.
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