Guava : Poor man’s fruit
Guava is an important fruit of tropical and subtropical area of the world. It is commonly called poor man’s fruit. It is one of the important commercial fruits in India. It is the fourth most important fruit after mango, banana and citrus. In India guava occupies an area of 2.03 lac hectares with annual production of 22.7 lacs MT. Allahabad area in U.P is reputed for the production of high quality of guava in India and the world. Just like mango, guava is found growing from plains to higher hills owing to its wider adaptability. It takes mild rainy season during fruit maturity and ripening just like mango. More rains in a year may lead to profuse growth with decreased productivity. It can tolerate mild frost in winter and drought in summer. It requires dry climate condition at the time of flowering. Guava is considered to be hardy fruit crop. It is not very choosy for soil. It can grow well in slightly alkaline and poor soils. For good growth of trees well drained sandy loams to clay loams with 6.5 to 8.5 pH are best suited.
Guavas can be really special plants in the landscape if you select just the right spot. That doesn’t mean they’re not going to develop diseases.There are a number of pathogens, mainly fungi, which affect the guava crop besides few bacterial, algal and some physiological disorders or deficiencies About 177 pathogens are reported on various parts of guava plant or associated with guava of which 167 arc fungi, 3 bacteria, 3 algae, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. About 91 pathogens are reported on fruits, 42 on foliage, 18 on twigs and 18 on roots. These cause various diseases viz. pre and post harvest rots of fruits, canker, wilt, die-back, defoliation, twig drying, leaf spot, leaf blight, anthracnose, red rust, sooty mould, rust, seedling blight and damping off etc , yet there are many diseases which are cause of great loss and the fruit rot is one of them.
Symptoms of Fruit Rot : This is caused by fungi Gloeosporium psidii and Phytophthora parasitica. The symptom starts at calyx disc of the fruit during rainy season. Affected area is covered with whitish cotton like growth which develops very fast as the fruit matures and pathogen is able to cover almost the entire surface within a period of 3-4 days during humid weather. Fully mature fruits are more prone to fungal attack. The centre of a lesion has pink sticky spore-mass characteristics of the anthracnose disease. Fruits rot completely within 2-3 days. The fungi also attack the twigs and branches of the tree during rainy season, resulting in the die-back of shoot from the distal end. Cool, wet environmental conditions with high soil moisture favour disease development. High humidity, temperature from 28-32oC (25 oC), poorly drained soils and injuries are favourable for initiation of disease.
Control : Two sprays of Hindustan M-45 after first visual symptom at 5 day intervals and then monthly sprays are effective in controlling the fruit rot . It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with protective action which protect the guava crop from many disease. It is fungi toxic when exposed to air. It is broad spectrum disease control – Control diseases caused by all four major classes . It is kind of fungicides – Foliar sprays, seed treatment, nursery drenching. Fit for resistance management – Multisite mode of action, the risk of resistance development is very low. It is cost effective – Cost benefits for disease control over non-EBDCs. Provide nutrients – Manganese and Zinc as micro nutrients. Environmentally Safe – Low persistence in environment as it rapidly degrades is soil and water, no leaching potential.
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