Indian Tea – The World’s Favourite Beverage
Imagining life without tea will put most Indians into sleepy morning inertia. For us, it’s the answer to a frenzied day at work, morning woes and even heartbreak. Don’t we kill all sorts of social awkwardness with a warm comforting cup in our hands for company? India is the second largest producer of tea in the world after China, including the famous Assam tea and Darjeeling tea. Today, India is one of the largest tea producers in the world, although over 70 percent of its tea is consumed within India itself. In this, India is also among the top 5 per-capita tea consumers. A number of renowned teas, such as Assam and Darjeeling, also grow exclusively in India. The Indian tea industry has grown to own many global tea brands and has evolved into one of the most technologically equipped tea industries in the world.
Economic Importance of Tea :
The tea industry has an important and special place in the Indian economy. Tea is the country’s primary beverage, with almost 85% of total households in the country consuming tea. India is the world’s largest producer and consumer d^ tea, accounting for 27% of the world tea production in 2003. India’s expenditure on beverages and processed foods accounts for 8% of food expenditure in rural areas, and 15% in urban areas. India is also an important tea exporter, with around 12-13% of world tea exports. Further, certain varieties of tea are grown only In India and arein great demand across the world. Darjeeling tea possesses the brightness of flavour and fine colouring that set them apart from all other teas.
Health Benifits of Tea :
Antioxidants work to prevent the body’s version of rust and thus help to keep us young and protect us from damage from pollution. Load up on antioxidants with a white tea, which is less processed than black or green tea so it retains more beneficial antioxidants. Drinking tea could help reduce the risk of heart attack. Tea might also help protect against cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Tea is high in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (“ORAC” to its friends), which is a fancy way of saying that it helps destroy free radicals (which can damage DNA) in the body.
Climatic & Soil requirement in Tea Farming:-
It grows in a moderately hot and humid climate, which is preferred for better yield, crop distribution and quality. An ambient temperature within 13°C and 28-32°C is conducive for growth of tea. Temperature above 32°C is unfavourable for optimum photosynthesis. It is synergically disastrous for the crop if it is accompanied by low humidity.Tea plantation requires well distributed rainfall from 150 cm to 300 cm throughout the year. Tea plantation is a shade loving plant and grows more vigorously when it planted along with shady tree areas. Tea plantation thrives well in deep, well drained, friable loamy soils. Virgin forest soils that are rich in humus and iron are the best suited soils for tea plantations and large proportion of potash and phosphorus in the main soil gives special flavour to tea as is the case in Darjeeling. Water logging will damage the plants, so make sure there is easy way of draining the soil. As part of Soil/Land preparation in Tea plantation, good dose of nitrogenous fertilizers like ammonium sulphate and organic matter should be added to soil. Soil acidic pH should be in the range of 4.5 to 5.5.
Hermful diseases of Tea :
Black Rot , Grey blight and Blister Blight are the hermful diseases of tea. The first indication of blister blight disease is a small, pale-green, pale-yellow, or pinkish, translucent spot on the tea leaf which is readily seen against the darker green colour when the leaf is held against the light. The disease also affects the tender and young green stems. On the stem a pale yellow spot appears; this gradually elongates and encircles the whole stem which becomes slightly swollen at this point. When the spores are ripe the patch on the stem turns grey. The fungus penetrates the tender stem and consequently the leaves and buds above the diseased part wither and necrotize. Finally the stem bends over and breaks off at the affected spot
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