MANGO : THE KING OF FRUITS
Mango is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the world’s mango production. The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer, accounting for about half of the global mango production. Indian Mangoes are known for their taste and aroma throughout the world. Mango is commercially cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttara Khand, Punjab and Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Mango cultivated over an area of 2309 thousand hectares with an annual production of 12750 thousand metric tones. India produces quality mangoes; Alphonso is highly liked by the western countries.
Soil and climate for Mango : Mango can be grown on a variety of soils. Poorly drained soils should be avoided. It does not perform well in soils with pH more than 7.8. Alluvial soils with good amount of organic matter and soil pH between 6.5 to 7.5 are best suited for mango orchards. Mango is a tropical fruit but is successful in sub-tropical conditions. At the time of flowering the occurrence of frost and rain is harmful. The most suitable temperature for the growth of mango is 22 – 27°C. Rains at fruit maturity are beneficial for the improvement of fruit size and quality.
Planting and Planting Distance: Before planting a mango orchard, the layout and preparation of pits may be completed at least one month in advance. It is desirable to propagate own mango plants from a desired mother-tree of a true to type cultivar. It varies from cultivar to cultivar. Langra, Chausa and Rampur gola may be planted at a distance of 11.0 metres. Semivigorous cultivars like Dusehari and Alphanso may be planted at 9 metres apart. Amrapali can be planted at 7 metres or 7 X 3.5 m apart closely planted plants are required to be given a light pruning at the time of each harvest. Mango should preferably be planted from August to October. It can be planted in March if regular irrigations are applied in summer months.
Irrigation: Water is life for youthful plants. Light and incessant water systems give preferable outcomes over flooding after long interims. Water system interim relies on kind of soil, atmosphere and wellspring of water system. The youthful mango plants ought to be kept at field limit (‘Wattar’) amid summers by applying water system at 5-7 days interim. Increment this interim gradually to 20 days as the winter begins. Amid blustery season stay away from water system. In the event that intercrops are being developed, give isolate water system framework to give water system to the mango plants amid April when wheat don’t require any water system. Under North Indian conditions, bearing trees should connected water system one week before blossoming and afterward after organic product set. Amid winter months, the interim of water system might be more than 25-30 days. Appropriate damp conditions ought to be kept from April to October.
Economic Importance: The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity.
Entire produce of mango is marketed as fresh fruit and only a limited quantity is given postharvest treatment for export purposes. Less than five per cent of the produced mangoes are processed and mango pulp is the main export product both in terms of volume and value. The demand of fresh mango fruits and processed food items in international and domestic market has shown a decent increase. This estimation is creating a necessity for growing more and more mango fruits to cater the growing demand of domestic & international market.
As we read about the importance of mango , India’s driving organization HPM is Creating new products to increase mango cultivation . HPM in the past numerous years had been an evenue for the creation of agro chemicals. We have had such a large number of products that have been set apart with teg of ‘ World’s best in class. Presently HPM is attempting to give high yielding varities of agrochemicals to the agriculturists. These enhanced and better agrochemicals have impressively raised their homestead deliver.
Unique modern and sure shot insecticide based on Imidacloprid a chlornicotinyl insecticide(CNI). HI-IMIDA is a multiple usage insecticide used to control hermful pests of mango. It is used as foliar spray for the control of sucking and other insects in different crops. Imidacloprid has a broad spectrum of activity, particularly against sucking insects, various species of beetles, some species of flies and leaf miners. There fields of use are termite and locust control. Its outstanding biological efficacy, especially its excellent root-systemic properties, its broad spectrum of activity, good long lasting effect – combined with low application rates and good plant compatibility, has made the product the first choice of th farmer.It can be applied to plants as a spray or stem paint or as a basal stem spray/drench. It can also be injected into plants or applied as a soil treatment use. The part of active ingredient taken up by the plant is further distributed in an acropetally direction.