Stem Borer : Most Ruinous Pest
Rice is the most important human food crop in the world, directly feeding more people than any other crop. In 2012, nearly half of world’s population – more than 3 billion people – relied on rice every day. It is also the staple food across Asia where around half of the world’s poorest people live. Rice has also fed more people over a longer time than has any other crop. It is spectacularly diverse, both in the way it is grown and how it is used by humans. Rice is unique because it can grow in wet environments that other crops cannot survive in. The rice plant has a wide array of ‘enemies’ in the field. These include rodents, harmful insects, viruses, diseases, and weeds. The world rice crop is attacked by more than 100 species of insects; 20 of them can cause economic damage. Insect pest that can cause significant yield losses is stem borer (which cause direct damage by feeding as well as by transmitting viruses)and a grain-sucking bug complex that feeds on developing grains.
The stem borers, generally considered the most serious pests of rice worldwide, occur and infest plants from seedling stage to maturity. Fifty species in three families-Pyralidae, Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), and Diopsidae are known to attack the rice crop . Thirty-five pyralids belonging to 12 genera, 10 noctuid species belonging to 3 genera, and 5 diopsid species belonging to the genus Diopsis have been recorded as rice stem borers. The pyralid borers are the most common and destructive, and usually have high host specificity. The noctuid borers are polyphagous and only occasionally cause economic losses to the rice crop. In Asia, the most destructive and widely distributed are yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas , striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis , white stem borer Scirpophaga innotata , darkheaded stem borer, Chilo polychrysus , and pink borer Sesamia inferens . In India, Scirpophaga incertulas and Chilo suppressalis are responsible for a steady annual damage of 5-10% of the rice crop, with occasional localized outbreaks of up to 60%. The initial boring and feeding by larvae in the leaf sheath cause broad, longitudinal, whitish, discolored areas at feeding sites, but only rarely do they result in wilting and drying of the leaf blades. About a week after hatching, the larvae from the leaf sheaths bore into the stem and, staying in the pith, feed on the inner surface of the walls. Such feeding frequently severs the apical parts of the plant from the base. When this occurs during the vegetative phase of the plant, the central leaf whorl does not unfold, but turns brownish and dries off, although the lower leaves remain green and healthy. This condition is known as deadheart and the affected tillers dry out without bearing panical.
Since it is one of the important crop, it is vital to guarantee the quality and amount of the create is appropriately kept up. To help Farmers with this procedure, HPM Chemical & Fertilizers Ltd. , one of India’s driving manures makers, has a variety of products in its portfolio to guarantee the crops are free from any harms from pests or insects. And TITYUS( Cartap hydrochloride 75% SG ) is the prudent answer for ruinous stem borer. It is Nereistoxin poison. It has contact, systemic and stomach action which gives effective control. It controls yellow stem borer, Leaf folder in rice crop. It is effective to control biting, chewing and sucking types of insect pests. It is compatible with other commonly used insecticides and fungicides. It also controls larvae which are resistance to conventional insecticides. It has no effects to natural enemies, fish, animals, human beings, crops and hence safe to environment.